great mosque of kairouan history

[50] There are stone blocks from the Roman period that bear Latin inscriptions. The Great Mosque, also known as the Sidi Oqba mosque, had its simple beginnings in 670 AD, during the time of Uqba ibn Nafi, the original founder of Kairouan. Many of Tunisia's other major mosques, including the Great Mosque of Sousse, took their inspiration from Kairouan's Great Mosque … Did you know… We have over 220 college Dome of the Rock. This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. Although it has existed for more than eleven centuries, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag. [64], Enlightened by impressive chandeliers which are applied in countless small glass lamps,[65] the nave opens into the south portico of the courtyard by a monumental delicately carved wooden door, made in 1828 under the reign of the Husainids. [84] This old chair of the ninth century is still in its original location, next to the mihrab. Des mots aux modes de spatialisation Â», Enceinte et porches de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Hichem Djaït, « L’Afrique arabe au VIII, Fondation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan. [12], During the thirteenth century, new gates were opened, the most remarkable, Bab Lalla Rihana dated from 1293, is located on the eastern wall of the enclosure. The Mosque of Uqba, one of the few religious buildings of Islam has remained intact almost all of its architectural and decorative elements, is due to the richness of its repertoire which is a veritable museum of Islamic decorative art and architecture. Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. The Great Mosque of Kairouan This is the oldest and most important Islamic building in North Africa and was originally built by Oqba ibn Nafi, the Arab commander who founded Kairouan in AD 672. [26], The current state of the mosque can be traced back to the Aghlabid period—no element is earlier than the ninth century besides the mihrab—except for some partial restorations and a few later additions made in 1025 during the Zirid period,[27] 1248 and 1293–1294 under the reign of the Hafsids,[28] 1618 at the time of Muradid beys,[29] and in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Name : Great Mosque of Kairouan Place : Kairouan, Tunisia Construction date/period : AH 50/AD 670; completely renovated in AH 221/AD 836; mihrāb and minbar built in AH 247/AD 862; prayer hall enlarged by three bays and porticos added in 875 Construction materials : original: clay bricks, palm tree trunks, … Today, it is located in the northern section of the structure and also once served the role of a watchtower but its principal function is that it was used as the location to call Muslims to prayer. [2] Its perimeter, of about 405 metres (1,329 ft), contains a hypostyle prayer hall, a marble-paved courtyard and a square minaret. Its most striking feature is the formal emphasis on the building’s T-like axis punctuated by two domes, one of which hovers over the earliest preserved ensemble of mihrab, minbar , … Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit … Linda Kay Davidson and David Martin Gitlitz, Minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), Minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Coupole du mihrab de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Salle de prière de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Présentation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (Qantara). [16] With the gradual increase of the population of Kairouan and the consequent increase in the number of faithful, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad Caliph in Damascus, charged his governor Bishr ibn Safwan to carry out development work in the city, which included the renovation and expansion of the mosque around the years 724–728. The sanctuary is 137 by 37 meters and there are 17 naves and 8 bays. As such, it assumed the important function of representing a cosmopolitan and urbane Kairouan, one of the first cities organized under Muslim rule in North Africa. Other scrolls and calligraphic Qur'ans, as that known as the Hadinah's Qur'an, copied and illuminated by the calligrapher Ali ibn Ahmad al-Warraq for the governess of the Zirid prince Al-Muizz ibn Badis at about 1020 AD, were also in the library before being transferred to Raqqada museum. imaginable degree, area of From the library of the mosque comes a large collection of calligraphic scrolls and manuscripts, the oldest dating back to the second half of the ninth century. The coating around them is decorated with blue plant motifs dating from the eighteenth century or the first half of the nineteenth century. The wall of the mihrab is covered with 28 panels of white marble, carved and pierced, which have a wide variety of plant and geometric patterns including the stylised grape leaf, the flower and the shell. The foundation of Kairouan dates to about the year 670 when the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi of Caliph Mu'awiya selected a site in the middle of a dense forest, then infested with wild beasts and reptiles, as the location of a military post for the conquest of the West. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Create your account, Already registered? [85], The library is near located, accessible by a door which the jambs and the lintel are carved in marble, adorned with a frieze of floral decoration. Carefully executed in relief, it represents one of the most beautiful epigraphic bands of Islamic art. Over the next 30 years, several additions and partial reconstructions were made. The bay along the qibla wall and main longitudinal axis form a T-formation, which was an arrangement typical of the region. The columns with their Roman and Byzantine capitols both inside the prayer hall and surrounding the courtyard comprise the largest collection in any Muslim building. 's' : ''}}. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر‎), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.[1]. A portico with double row of arches precede the spacious prayer hall, which takes the shape of a rectangle of 70.6 metres in width and 37.5 metres' depth. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. [11] This location corresponded originally to the heart of the urban fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi. However, it has a scattered building history. courses that prepare you to earn The minbar, situated on the right of the mihrab, is used by the imam during the Friday or Eids sermons, is a staircase-shaped pulpit with an upper seat, reached by eleven steps, and measuring 3.93 metres' length to 3.31 metres in height. [18] In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments[19] took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid ibn Hatim. During the next century, a large courtyard was included, a pool was built, and the minaret was constructed. The mosque is about 70 by 125 meters and is an irregular rectangle in plan. [13][14], At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi (himself the founder of the city) chose the site of his mosque in the center of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. Kairouan (from UNESCO) Next lesson. It is a hypostyle hall with a flat roof; however there are domes above the mihrab and entry. It can also be referred to as Mosque of Uqba Ibn Nafi, in honor of its original founder. the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia. In addition to its spiritual prestige,[3] the Mosque of Uqba is one of the masterpieces of Islamic architecture,[4][5][6] notable among other things for the first Islamic use of the horseshoe arch. Bachelor of Architecture Salary Info: What Do Graduates Earn? [35] Early in the twentieth century, the Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke describes his admiration for the impressive minaret: « Is there a more beautiful than this still preserved old tower, the minaret, in Islamic architecture? Stephen has master's degrees in both architecture and city planning and has taught architecture design studios. The history of the Great Mosque of Kairouan: In 670 in Kairouan was built the first mosque, to North Africa of Muslim Arabs shortly after the arrival. [83] Probably made by cabinetmakers of Kairouan (some researchers also refer to Baghdad), it consists of an assembly of more than 300 finely carved wood pieces with an exceptional ornamental wealth (vegetal and geometric patterns refer to the Umayyad and Abbasid models), among which about 90 rectangular panels carved with plenty of pine cones, grape leaves, thin and flexible stems, lanceolate fruits and various geometric shapes (squares, diamonds, stars, etc.). [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. The Great Mosque of Kairouan has become one of the most prominent places of worship in the Muslim world due to its historical significance and architectural influence. As such, it assumed the important function of representing a cosmopolitan and urbane Kairouan, one of the first cities organized under Muslim rule in North Africa. The great mosque of Damascus: studies on the makings of an Umayyad visual culture by: Flood, Finbarr Barry 1965- Published: (2001) The great mosque of Isfahan by: Grabar, Oleg 1929-2011 Published: (1990) credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Oxford, 1977, The fluted dome above the mihrab is supported by decorated stone squinches. Create an account to start this course today. Where Can You Meet Other Homeschool Parents? The niche of the mihrab is two metres long, 4.5 metres high and 1.6 metres deep. The Great Mosque isn't close to anything in particular, but it's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive. It was destroyed and rebuilt in 703 by Hassan Ibn Numan. is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia.. Anyone can earn It was built by the founder of Kairouan, Sidi Oqba (the mosque is also known as the Sidi Oqba Mosque). [14] Access to the courtyard by six side entrances dating from the ninth and thirteenth centuries. The Great Mosque isn't close to anything in particular, but it's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive. Over the next 30 years, several additions and partial reconstructions were made. [17] During this expansion, he pulled down the mosque and rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. This reflects the fact that, unlike the rest of the mosque, the enclosure has undergone significant changes to ensure the stability of the building (adding many buttresses). It was rebuilt by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Nu'man in 703. From the eighteenth century, the French doctor and naturalist John Andrew Peyssonnel, conducting a study trip to 1724, during the reign of sovereign Al-Husayn Bey I, underlines the reputation of the mosque as a deemed centre of religious and secular studies: « The Great Mosque is dedicated to Uqba, where there is a famous college where we will study the remotest corners of this kingdom : are taught reading and writing of Arabic grammar, laws and religion. [55], Due to its age and its architectural features, the minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the prototype for all the minarets of the western Islamic world: it served as a model in both North Africa and in Andalusia. Considered one of the most im­portant Islamic monuments in the Maghreb, the great mosque is an architectural masterpiece that was founded by Uqba ibn Nafi cover­ing a perimeter of 405 metres. However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. The first mosque constructed on this site in Kairouan, Tunisia was commissioned by Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670. Behind the openwork hint, there is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were formulated. Great Mosque of Samarra: Architecture & Facts, Quiz & Worksheet - Kairouan Mosque in Tunisia, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Umayyad Mosque: Architecture, History & Facts, Minaret: Definition, Design & Architecture, Biological and Biomedical Aside from its Great Mosque – the first founded in the Maghreb –, it is also home to the mausoleum of an ancient companion of the Prophet, Sidi Saheb; this magnificent building built in the 17th century, made up of several patios and rooms decorated with multicoloured ceramic panels, is known as the “Mosque of the Barber”. [12][37] However, Arab geographers and historians of the Middle Ages Al-Muqaddasi and Al-Bakri reported the existence, around the tenth and eleventh centuries, of about ten gates named differently from today. In 836, Ziyadat Allah rebuilt the sanctuary, and in 856 a double-arcade was added to the sanctuary. The beginning of each surah is indicated by a band consisting of a golden stylised leafy foliage, dotted with red and blue, while the verses are separated by silver rosettes. It is surrounded at its upper part by 139 lusterware tiles (with a metallic sheen), each one is 21.1 centimetres square and they are arranged on the diagonal in a chessboard pattern. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Extensive works under the Aghlabids two centuries later (9th Cent.AD/CE) gave the mosque its present aspect. For all these reasons, the mosque which once occupied the center of the medina when first built in 670 is now on the easternmost quarter abutting the city walls. It is the oldest minaret in the Muslim world,[53][54] and it is also the world's oldest minaret still standing. Mahmoud Bouali, « Il y a près de trois siècles, un tourisme éminemment éclairé Â», Courte biographie sur Thomas Shaw (Société des anglicistes de l’enseignement supérieur), Kairouan n’était pas une ville interdite (Capitale de la culture islamique 2009), The influence of Kairouan on art and literature (Capital of Islamic culture 2009), Fragment de bois à décor d’arcatures d’époque hafside (Qantara), Coupole du Bahou de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Cour et minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (Qantara). By the founder of Kairouan it was built, he was the Sidi Oqba, for that as the Sidi Oqba Mosque is also known the mosque. Get access risk-free for 30 days, page 404, Henri Saladin, Tunis et Kairouan, [49], The door giving access to the minaret is framed by a lintel and jambs made of recycled carved friezes of antique origin. Sort by: Top Voted. [60] Some capitals were carved for the mosque, but others come from Roman or Byzantine buildings (dating from the second to sixth century) and were reused. The maqsura, located near the minbar, consists of a fence bounding a private enclosure that allows the sovereign and his senior officials to follow the solemn prayer of Friday without mingling with the faithful. One other outstanding feature of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is that its minaret is the world’s oldest surviving minaret. Discover the architectural wonder and historical significance of this place of worship. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was a public structure, set along roads that served a city with a vibrant commercial, educational, and religious life. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Due to existing site conditions, its main walls are not perfectly parallel, creating an irregular plan. [44], View of the courtyard on the side of the prayer hall facade, Porch topped with a ribbed dome rising in the middle of the south portico of the courtyard, Courtyard seen from one of the arched galleries, Portico located on the eastern side of the courtyard, Interior view of the eastern portico of the courtyard, Interior view of the western portico of the courtyard. This mosque was founded around the year 670 A.D.; it is the first mosque in North Africa and the most famous one. It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. The boards painted under the Hafsid period (during the thirteenth century) offers a floral decor consists of white and blue arches entwined with lobed green. Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda, « Kairouan (Tunisia) Â», Présentation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (ArchNet), Plafonds de la salle de prière de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), Minbar of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), "Maqsura of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara)", Circular chandelier (Discover Islamic Art), Nurdin Laugu, « The Roles of Mosque Libraries through History Â», Al-Jami‘ah, vol. Site in Kairouan is recognized as one of the Great mosque of Uqba Ibn,. Soon after this mosque, Charlemagne built his palace at Aachen between Blended Learning & Distance?. City of Kamounia was located where Kairouan now stands test out of the University of Paris the! Of architecture Salary info: what Do Graduates earn,  « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de.. 12 ] the greater part of the complex is the first and second stories are by... Sign up to add this lesson to a Custom course [ 50 ] there are large rents for maintenance... 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